The Present Perfect: Have/has
Concept: The present perfect translates as "have/has ed", such as "I have eaten; you have gone; she has studied". The "HAVE" section of the verb is in the present tense, thus the name PRESENT perfect.
Formation: To form the present perfect, take the PRESENT tense of the verb HABER: (He, Has, Ha, Hemos, Habéis and Han) and combine it with the PAST PARTICIPLE of the verb. To form the past participle, drop the AR, ER, IR from the infinitive and add ADO for AR verbs and IDO for ER/IR verbs. Sample past participles are hablado, comido, and vivido. Remember, this is a TWO WORD verb and it cannot be split. Once you combine HABER and the past participle, it should look like this: He hablado= I have spoken; Has hablado =YOU have spoken.
Although most verbs drop the ending and add ADO/IDO, there are several with irregular past participles, which must be memorized, such as these commonly used verbs:
"CHO" verbs--Decir: dicho; Hacer: hecho
"TO" verbs--Romper: roto ; Escribir: escrito; Abrir: abierto; Morir: muerto
"LTO" verbs--Volver: vuelto; Devolver: devuelto
"STO" verbs--Poner: Puesto; Ver: visto
Notice that the past participle does not change in any way. Only the verb HABER conjugates.
He escrito= I have written
Has roto= You have broken
Han visto= They have seen
In the exercise that follows, match the infinitive and the person with the present perfect tense. These are a mixture of regular and irregulars.